Healthcare Business Process Management, Adaptive Case Management & Process-Aware EHR & Health IT Systems

Health IT

Workflow Complexity: Complicated data and simple workflow is complicated. Simple data and complicated workflow is complicated. Healthcare's complicated data and complicated workflow is hypercomplicated.

No Cost Competition: In other industries, companies are forced to adopt technology to optimize workflow to minimize cost while maximizing flexibility.

Regulatory Environment: EHR and HIT vendors are stretched thin addressing Meaningful Use requirements.

Screens vs. Workflow: It’s easier to appreciate EHR screens (layout of data and controls over space) than workflow functionality (sequences of events over time).

Threat to Revenue Streams: Switching to new platforms is risky and threatens current revenue streams.

Billing Over Clinical Emphasis: As long as the right codes are generated to maximize revenue, nothing else matters.

Skeuomorphism: Misguided attempts to model EHR user interfaces on paper medical record forms.

Workflow Stereotypes: Workflow management systems and business process management once emphasized automating human users out of processes. Not true now!

Not Invented Here-ism: Most academic and commercial BPM activity occurs outside the US.

Paradigm Shifts: You stick with a paradigm unless you’re forced to change. Health IT picked a document-based, instead of workflow-based, paradigm.

*Top Ten Reasons EHR-BPM Tech Is Not (Yet) Widely Deployed in Healthcare

Blog Posts

Healthcare BPM

Process Support and Knowledge Representation in Health Care

Short Link: (from Process Support and Knowledge Representation) As you can tell from this blog's title (EHR Workflow Management Systems) and my Twitter account (@EHRworkflow), I think health IT and workflow technology is a great match. Many EHR (and related HIT) weaknesses are mirrored by business process management (BPM and related tech) strengths (for example, see Figure 3). Therefore I was excited to see this tweet from @manfredreichert:

The following (my emphasis) describes the contents of this proceedings of a workshop attended by both medical informatics and business process management researchers.

"Healthcare organizations are facing the challenge of delivering high quality services to their patients at affordable costs. These challenges become more prominent with the growth in the aging population with chronic diseases and the rise of healthcare costs. High degree of specialization of medical disciplines, huge amounts of medical knowledge and patient data to be consulted in order to provide evidence-based recommendations, and the need for personalized healthcare are prevalent trends in this information-intensive domain. The emerging situation necessitates computer-based support of healthcare process & knowledge management as well as clinical decision-making.
The ProHealth'12 / KR4HC'12 workshop brought together researchers from two communities who have been addressing these challenges from two different perspectives. The knowledge-representation for healthcare community, which is part of the larger medical informatics community, has been focusing on knowledge representation and reasoning to support knowledge management and clinical decision-making. In turn, the process-oriented information systems in healthcare community, which is part of the larger business process management (BPM) community, has been studying ways to adopt BPM technology in order to provide effective solutions for healthcare process management. Adopting BPM technology in the healthcare sector is starting to address some of the unique characteristics of healthcare processes, including their high degree of flexibility, the integration with EMRs and shared semantics of healthcare domain concepts, and the need for tight cooperation and communication among medical care teams."

Using the published Table of Contents I tracked down preprints for most of the papers. Keep in mind they were likely edited and polished after the workshop. Nonetheless, they show important connections between healthcare information and healthcare processes. And they show the motivation of respective academic communities to understand and exploit these connections.

I hope these papers, and their authors, inspire US EHR, health IT and business process management professionals, organizations, and vendors to benefit from similar concerted effort.

Table of Contents Plus Links to Papers

Where I know of a Twitter account for an author (or relevant associated vendor or organization) I added it.

Let me know if you track down any of the missing papers or know the Twitter accounts of additional authors.


BPM and Complex-Event Processing Saves Lives

Short Link: Siemens Healthcare has been a pioneer in bringing business process management technology to healthcare, starting with the Soarian hospital EHR workflow management system over a decade ago. I've written about Soarian and Siemens here in my EHR Workflow Management Systems blog. I included material about Siemens Soarian in my three-hour tutorial on EHR Workflow Management Systems at the old TEPR conference. And I occasionally tweet about them from my @EHRworkflow account.

More and more BPM vendors are getting into the deeper end of the healthcare swimming pool, closer and closer to clinical patient care. It's a big project to educate healthcare and health IT about process-aware information systems such as Soarian. It's a paradigm shift (#3 in my Ten Reasons EHR-BPM Tech Is Not (Yet) Widely Deployed in Healthcare) from mere structured documents to robust structured workflows. So I was delighted to see this crisp, clear and concise description of the benefits of business process management and complex-event processing in a healthcare and hospital context.

Some people like to skim text and others like to watch video. For the readers like me, I transcribed the interview (30 seconds versus two minutes?). It's also a way to make sure the search engines find this important material. After the interview I added some links to related blog posts about topics mentioned in the interview.

"My name is Tommy Richardson [@Techdadda on Twitter]. I'm the Chief Technology Officer and VP for Technology for Siemens Healthcare

To us what is most exciting about TIBCO is that most companies out there today are hardcoding when building their systems. They've got hardcoded rules, hardcoded workflows, hardcoded integrations.

What's exciting to us about TIBCO is using TIBCO's BPM and enterprise service bus to build much more flexible and systems that can be much more easily extended for our clients. So you can think about some hospitals have certain workflows when you go to emergency. Others may want to change that and say when [the patient] first comes in skip the insurance collection and send him back to the room if he's seriously hurt.

So we're using the tools TIBCO has given us to build this tremendous flexibility into the system, where we can have different workflows for the hospital organizations and the hospitals organizations can even change and update the workflows we deliver with TIBCO's products today.

TIBCO's technologies are extremely important to us.

The data that's changing in our systems is flowing over the TIBCO enterprise service bus. Using the complex event processing, the workflow, and the rules allow us to get a two-second advantage.

So we can look at the data that is changing immediately, whether it's from taking someone's blood pressure and knowing there's a problem to monitoring their cardiac test to discharge to admission. All the different events that happen in healthcare you can use the TIBCO tools to, in a second or two, make real life-determining decisions.

That's the really key thing about healthcare that's certainly different from other industries. Other industries are using the tools to make dollars. We're using it to save peoples' lives.

That brings chills up my spine just talking about it.

That's the special stuff."

Special indeed!

Great interview! Reminds me of my infamous HatCam One-Minute Interviews (well, length- and content-wise, though not production quality).

If you'd like to learn more about EHR workflow technology and EHR complex event processing, I hope you'll check out some of the following links:

Could BPM and Process Mining Save US Healthcare 600 Billion Dollars?

Prof. Wil van der Aalst is not a health economist studying cost, a surgeon promoting safety, or a pediatrician investigating quality. In fact, Prof. van der Aalst is not a healthcare researcher. He is a Dutch mathematician and computer scientist. His ideas and invented techniques are generally valuable to any industry that needs to better understand, manage and improve its processes. That said, about a fifth of his many academic papers deal with healthcare processes and workflow. His ideas about workflow models, patterns, and analytics have been tested generally, across many industries, and specifically in healthcare.

Could Prof. van der Aalst save U.S. Healthcare 600 Billion Dollars? Watch his One-Minute Interview. Read his answers to my questions. Decide for yourself. (Several of my questions have lengthy preambles. I do that sometimes. Feel free to skim directly to his indented responses.) aalst

Prof. Wil van der Aalst's "One-Minute Interview"
(without the "arrowhead")
The above image? It's so you can see Prof. van der Aalst without YouTube's irritating "arrowhead." Below is the actual embedded and runnable One-Minute Interview on YouTube .

Prof. Wil van der Aalst's "One-Minute Interview"
(with "arrowhead")
Here's a mini-table of contents for Prof. van der Aalst's interview: 1. What is your name? Where do you work? What is your role?

"I’m Wil van der Aalst and work as a full professor of Information Systems at Eindhoven University of Technology. I also have professorship appointments at Queensland University of Technology in Brisbane (where I’m now) and the National Research University Higher School of Economics (HSE) in Moscow. Besides running a research group in Eindhoven, I’m also chairing various committees, e.g., the steering committee of the Business Process Management Conferences and the IEEE Task Force on Process Mining."

2. What are process-aware information systems (PAISs)? How do workflow management systems, business process management suites, and recent debate about case management fit into your description?

"Any information system that is supporting processes beyond the limits of individual tasks is a Process-Aware Information Systems (PAIS). Process support in its purest form can be found in Business Process Management (BPM) and Workflow Management (WFM) systems. These systems are driven by explicit process models. Changing the model directly results in changes of the process that is supported: no coding is needed. However, there are also many process-aware information systems where process models are less visible. Consider for example systems where processes are hard-coded or the ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) systems that can be found in most of the larger organizations. Many people do not realize that larger ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) systems (e.g., SAP and Oracle), CRM (Customer Relationship Management) systems, case-handling systems, rule-based systems, call center software, and high-end middleware (e.g. WebSphere) are process-aware, although they do not necessarily control processes through some generic workflow engine.

The debate on case management is a bit silly. Note that we were already working on the foundations of case handling long before the term got popular. Also note systems such as FLOWer and ECHO that have been around for a long time. The key problem is to truly support flexibility and to move beyond simplistic flowchart modeling notations such as BPMN and the like."

3. On my blog I've a list of ten reasons BPM has not gained more advocates and use in the US healthcare industry. Top Ten Reasons EHR-BPM Tech Is Not (Yet) Widely Deployed in Healthcare Do they seem reasonable to you? Any other reasons? Any one or two that really seem to be key to you? How?

"The list seems to be very reasonable. The 10 items explain well why there is resistance against adopting BPM technologies. Items 4 (Lack of competition) and 7 (Self-interest) seem very important. I also think that there are additional reasons for the slow adoption:

Governments have been too passive in forcing care organizations to work in a more structured and standardized manner. A nice example is the so-called Diagnosis Treatment Combination (DBC in Dutch) introduced in 2005 in the Netherlands. Every hospital is required to use DTC's in order to determine the total cost of a medical treatment. Hospitals are required to report information in standard form to get reimbursed. The data is collected at the national level and has helped us a lot in our process mining research. It shows that a government decision can result in rapid changes of the underlying processes and IT systems as long as they have the guts to enforce it.

Another factor is the ignorance of end-user organizations of BPM technology (in this case hospitals). They do not know what is possible and therefore do not ask the right questions. As a result, technology providers get lazy and focus on superficial things like user interfaces (see also point 6 on your list). Health care managers and IT specialists need to be educated when it comes to business process management and process mining.

In Europe we are facing another complication. Many of the healthcare related regulations are country specific. As a result, there is no real competition and innovative software products developed in one country cannot simply be used in another country. Here the European Union should be more active rather than spending their energy on talking about Greece’s financial problems."

4. You keynoted the 2004 MedInfo conference in San Francisco. You said you'd looked at every instance of the use of the word "workflow" in the proceedings but, it did not seem to be used in the same way that you and your colleagues use the term. What did you mean? Has there been any convergence in meaning? I don't suppose you've looked at any MedInfo proceedings in the same manner recently, but you may have had other indications.

"There has been a long workflow management tradition in the business area. Already in the 70-ties there were workflow systems in place. Unfortunately, the same ideas tend to be reinvented in different domains. A nice example are the so-called medical guidelines languages (Asbru, GLIF, GUIDE, and PROforma) reinventing basic workflow patterns.

The terms Business Process Management (BPM) and Workflow Management (WFM) also have the problem that people do cherry picking: they focus a particular aspect and abstract from all other aspects. For example, people focus on execution engines and ignore management aspects or people only draw PowerPoint diagrams while closing their eyes for the actual Spaghetti-like processes and complex information systems.

The drawback of people misusing terminology is that some technologies get a bad reputation because of unrealistic promises and organizations do not even try to use them anymore."

5. Your bio notes you've published "more than 150 journal papers, 17 books (as author or editor), 290 refereed conference/workshop publications, and 50 book chapters". You seem interested in any innovative use of BPM or process mining, no matter the industry. However, many of your papers happen to be about healthcare processes. Approximately how many papers related to healthcare processes have you published? Is healthcare a special case?

"The techniques and tools we develop tend to be very generic. We are not interested in tailoring them towards a particular application domain. For example, we have applied our process mining tool ProM in over 100 organizations covering very different industries. I guess that about 20 of my papers are focusing on healthcare applications of our technologies. We have a particular interest in healthcare because processes are much more chaotic than in many other industries, and potential savings are enormous. For example, we did quite some research into workflow flexibility. It is interesting to see that many researchers working on this topic are inspired by applications in healthcare. This illustrates that healthcare is a very challenging, and therefore interesting, application domain for BPM."

6. What is process mining? How is it relevant to healthcare?

"Process mining can be used to discover and analyze emerging processes that are supported by systems that are not even “aware” of the processes they are used in. It is definitely one of the “hot topics” in BPM research and I love to work on it because it is driven by real data rather than simplistic diagrams.

Imagine this: in 2060 your laptop can store the whole digital universe as we know it today. All books, movies, music, articles, the whole internet, etc. known today will fit onto your hard disk in 2060. This can be shown by simply extrapolating Moore’s law. This means that more and more data will be available and we should use it to analyze processes. The “Big Data” wave will also impact the healthcare industry. Unfortunately, most people working with data are not very interested in processes because they lack the proper tools and focus on specific activities rather than end-to-end processes.

See the websites and to learn more about applications of process mining in healthcare."

[CW: Also my EHR Business Process Management: From Process Mining to Process Improvement to Process Usability]

7. Many professionals in health IT have had some personal health experience, or observed that of a relative or friend, motivating them to use their knowledge to improve healthcare information management. Do, or can, you relate to this?

"This also holds for me. We have four children and our oldest son Willem has Down’s syndrome. In his first year he had heart surgery because of a serious Atrioventricular septal defect (AVSD). Over the last 11 years he has seen many hospitals from in the inside. Overall, I’m impressed by the work done in hospitals. However, I also see that with our aging population and advances in medicine, it is vital to do things more efficiently. Therefore, I’m eager to contribute. In banks and insurance companies our techniques can be used to make things even more efficient and effective. However, improvements in managing healthcare processes are much more urgent."

8. Are there process-aware aspects of the world we take for granted in our daily lives? (products we buy made possible by process-aware factory automation, smart consumer-facing web services, stuff that happens we don't think about until there is a glitch). Headlines are full of "mobile", "cloud", "social", and "bigdata". Does "process-awareness" not get the awareness it deserves?

"Processes are of course everywhere. When you rent a car, book a flight, buy a book, file a tax declaration, or transfer money there are process-aware information systems making this possible. Processes are as essential as data, but less tangible. Moreover, process support is much more difficult than managing data. Indeed it should get much more attention. The problem is of course that processes have always been there, while “big data”, “mobile computing” and “clouds” are perceived as something new."

[CW: The next question? One of those lengthy preambles I warned you about.]

9. To put the following numbers in perspective, World Gross Domestic Product is about $81 trillion and US and European economies are about $15 trillion each. Over the next ten years the US health industry sector is projected reach $4 trillion. It spends twice as much per capita as other similar industrialized countries. The growth rate of US spending on healthcare is also considerably higher than other similar countries. Health Care Spending in the United States and Selected OECD Countries Why does U.S. health care cost so much? The US is estimated to waste more than $765 billion/year on healthcare spending, one third of the total $2.5 trillion dollar healthcare industry, due to:

  • Unnecessary services
  • Frequency
  • Defensive medicine
  • Unnecessary use of high-cost services
  • Administrative waste
  • Duplicative costs of administering different plans
  • Unproductive documentation
  • Inefficiently delivered services
  • Medical errors
  • Uncoordinated care
  • Inefficient operations
  • Too-high prices
  • Prices higher than competitive levels
  • Excessive variation in service prices
  • Fraud
  • Medicare/Medicaid fraud
  • Insufficient investment to detect fraud
  • Missed prevention opportunities
  • Poor delivery of clinical prevention services
I hate to put you on the spot (actually, I relish the opportunity to do so, in this case), but, approximately how big is the opportunity for workflow management systems technology, business process management suites, and healthcare process mining in US healthcare?
  1. 0 - 7 Billion
  2. 7 - 70 Billion
  3. 70 - 700 Billion
  4. Greater than 700 Billion
Justify your answer!

"As far as I can recall 8000 dollars are spent per person per year in the US (17% of the GDP). Assume that we could save 2000 dollars through process improvement and better IT support. This would amount to 300 million x 2000 = 600 billion. Of course this is just a guess. However, both the absolute numbers and the relative increase in spending due to our aging society show that there is a need for action! Therefore, I appreciate your efforts to bring these issues to the attention of medical professionals and decision makers."

I take it your answer is #3!

Thank you Prof. van der Aalst. It will be fascinating to watch workflow management systems, business process management, and process mining technology diffuse into and throughout US health IT and healthcare.

Can Healthcare Have Consistent and Flexible Info Systems?

Short Link: From my recent chapter published in How Knowledge Workers Get Things Done: Physicians complain about having to hew to what their EHR vendor thinks their workflows should be. It ought to be up to users (or at least someone who knows their workflows) to decide how consistent or flexible they’d like their software to be. Workflow technology (Business Process Management, BPM) opens up the possibility of physicians owning their own workflows. They can make everyone’s workflow the same. They can also allow different physicians to have different preferred workflow.


There’s a stereotype of workflow systems turning users into cogs, with humans doing what machines cannot, instead of machines doing what humans prefer not. That said, defining and executing workflows is one way to influence user behavior, to get folks to do their work the way that medical practice or that hospital intends it be done. Instead of making it impossible for users to depart from intended workflows, the best approach is to make it as easy as possible for users to do their work intended ways, ideally ways that have been vetted and discussed and agreed upon by relevant personnel.

Consistency and flexibility are in natural contradictory tension. At one extreme is a physician, working with lots of physician assistants and nurses and staff, who’d like to make sure everyone does it his or her way. In organizational management-speak, customizable workflows enable greater span-of-control than otherwise possible. At the other extreme, multiple physicians can work together and each have their own workflow. Tension between consistency and flexibility is reduced by using rules and process definitions that non-programming users can understand. They, not their vendor, find the best compromise.

Using BPM Tools and Methodology in Healthcare

Anyone who reads my EHR Workflow Management Systems blog, or follows me on Twitter at @EHRworkflow, knows I pay attention to BPM-in-healthcare developments. Business process management and related technologies are underused in healthcare relative to other industries and potential to improve healthcare's inefficient, ineffective, and inflexible processes. So I was delighted several days ago to see a position paper about BPM and healthcare on BPM's DeveloperWorks website. It's a great excuse to follow up the blog post I wrote this spring about IBM Impact 2012 Global Conference (Hold Onto Your Hats: BPM in Healthcare is Taking Off!).

Care process management: Using BPM tools and methodology in the healthcare environment

I grabbed the best bits (fair use, mind you, indented and italicized), added some of my own thoughts, and provided links to additional resources.

"Historically, healthcare excellence has been achieved through individual practitioners focusing on being best in their medical discipline. The industry has evolved into a series of independent providers and processes, focusing on intervention. Focusing within each discipline does not provide consideration for the overall patient experience. Today, the healthcare industry is marked by its poor design, high fragmentation, and stunning inefficiency. Care Process Management (CPM) uses best practices for business process management to improve clinical outcomes without changing care processes or displacing the role of health workers."
  • Poor design
  • High fragmentation
  • Stunning inefficiency

Strong words! But they are sentiments I hear frequently from healthcare IT folks too.

"Care Process Management" is essentially a rebranding of "Business Process Management" for healthcare. The basic motivation to rebrand BPM is that physicians don't like to think of healthcare as a "business."

I've written (and tweeted) a lot about business process management and healthcare. And I've thought about rebranding BPM. Several years ago I defined "clinical groupware" as a kind of brand extension of workflow management systems, business process management, and case management into healthcare.

Factors influencing brand extension success include:

  • Similarity between extended-from brand to extended-to brand
  • Reputation (strength) of the extended-from brand
  • Risk of loss due to purchase of extended-to brand
  • Innovativeness of potential customers for extended-to brand

From Factors Influencing Successful Brand Extensions.

By the way, natural language processing (NLP, another theme on this blog) faces the same dilemma. Clinical NLP vendors speak and write of both clinical language understanding and natural language processing in almost the same breath or sentence. Both BPM and NLP have stronger brands outside of healthcare than within healthcare. Both BPM and NLP have great promise in medicine (See my comments on IBM's Watson). It will be interesting to watch this terminology evolve over the next several years.

"Care process management (CPM) is the application of business process automation and optimization techniques to clinical care processes in the healthcare environment. CPM uses best practices for BPM to improve clinical outcomes without changing care processes or displacing the role of health workers."

"[B]est practices for BPM to improve clinical outcomes without changing care processes" is an interesting idea. I wrote about similar in my Automate Your EMR Cow Paths *and* Reengineer Them Too! blog post. The intuition behind this phraseology, which I share, is those information technologies that least disrupt existing clinical workflows will be most easily accepted and implemented. Many electronic health record and health information systems are criticized by users for unusable workflows and no means to improve them. One of business process management's unique strengths is that its workflows are controlled by explicitly editable (by non-programmers) workflow plans, sometimes called workflow or process definitions.

Healthcare inefficiency and complexity
"[H]ealthcare ranked as the least efficient industry in the world, with more than $2.5 trillion wasted annually"


(Thumbnail of) Leading the Pack in Inefficiency

Holy. Cow. Would you look at healthcare way up there in the upper right! Healthcare is even more inefficient that education and government. By the way, in the lower left, the least inefficient (most efficient) are communication (which I totally get) and leisure/recreation/clothing (clothing I get, but it'd be interesting to go to the original report to find out what it means for leisure and recreation to be so efficient!).

"BPM is the means by which organizations improve their operations by leveraging internal expertise in new and scalable ways. This is achieved by directly engaging business people in the design, definition and creation of enterprise class process applications. BPM excels at providing comprehensive change management of business processes that results in continuous process improvement."
"CPM is the strategic application of the BPM methodology to clinical care processes in the hospital/healthcare environment. The focus is on the patient and how care is delivered."
"The traditional application of BPM to the hospital environment has been challenged because many healthcare practitioners do not see healthcare as a 'business' but as a 'calling.' Healthcare practitioners are not 'servicing customers' but 'caring for patients.' However, CPM does not change what a provider does to care for a patient. It focuses on process improvements - on coordination and collaboration between care providers."

Here I'll have to quibble (hey, I am very enthusiastic about this paper, but this wouldn't be a blog post by me, if I didn't quibble). I don't think the issue is that clinicians don't like the word "business." They may, or may not, but that's not what's keeping business process management technology from more rapidly diffusing into healthcare. In fact, in Top Ten Reasons EHR-BPM Tech Is Not (Yet) Widely Deployed in Healthcare, I list the restraining forces, and none of them are about the word "business" versus the word "clinical."

By the way, I otherwise agree with the characterization of BPM/CPM as a technology for improving processes. It's consistent with my favorite short definition of business process management as essentially being about "process optimization process."

Core IT functionality
  • "BPM engine – Care processes execute within a BPM engine. The engine implements the following functions that are critical to CPM:
    • Notifies care providers when a patient is admitted, when a consult is requested and when the patient is discharged
    • Creates and maintains an electronic version of the multi-disciplinary activity plan on behalf of the doctors and nurses
    • Manages assignments, reassignments and coverage of care activities on behalf of care providers
    • Can integrate with external systems to schedule medical procedures or equipment"

"BPM Engine" refers to what is often called a workflow engine or orchestration engine. I used to run a yearly three-hour tutorial about EHR workflow management systems. Here are the slides and notes for the workflow engine portion of that tutorial.

It's worth reading about definitions of workflow systems, workflow management systems, and process definitions first:

Then read about workflow engines:

"Care process management offers a roadmap that will help the healthcare industry to transform delivery. Without changing what healthcare workers do best, it addresses the inherent inefficiencies of the care delivery process. Many aspects of care delivery can be improved using business process management to automate the coordination of care delivery and to enable providers to collaborate more effectively."

While I may quibble about whether to call it care process management or business process management, I couldn't agree more with the rest of the paper. I'm delighted to see BPM vendors beginning to make their best cases for use of BPM in healthcare. There's remarkably alignment between disadvantages of current process-unaware EHRs and HIT systems and advantages of process-aware information systems: workflow management systems, BPM suites, and innovative case management systems.

If you'd like to read more about combining business process management and healthcare information technology, here are some of my past posts on the topic.

If you'd like to join a conversation about these topics I hope you'll follow me on Twitter. We're a growing band of BPM and health IT researchers and professionals learning from each other. I'll gladly introduce you around!

P.S. By the way, I know of tweeps who joined Twitter solely to listen to this specific conversation but ended up going quite native, so to speak!

My Next Speaking Engagement!


BPM Solutions

Process Orchestration Engine (AKA workflow engine) to drive the progression of work in structured and unstructured processes or cases

Model-Driven Composition environment for designing processes and their supporting activities and process artifacts

Content Interaction Management supporting e progression of work, especially cases, based on changes in the content itself (documents, images and audio)

Human Interaction Management enables people to naturally interact with processes they're involved in

Connected Processes and Resources they control, such as people, systems, data, event streams, goals and key performance indicators (KPIs)

Continuous Analytics monitor activity progress, and analyze activities and changes in and around processes

On-Demand Analytics to provide decision support using predictive analytics and optimization

Business Rule Management systems guide and implement process agility and ensure compliance

Management and Administration monitor and adjust technical aspects of BPM platform

Process Component Registry/Repository for process component leverage and reuse

Cloud-Based Deployment of about features and functions across desktop platforms and mobile devices

Social Media Compatible external and/or similar internal activity streams integrated with workflows

*Adapted from Gartner

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